Chandrayaan-3: Discovery with Innovative Techniques

“Chandrayaan-3: Elevating Lunar Discovery with Innovative Techniques”

“Chandrayaan-3: Elevating Lunar Discovery with Innovative Techniques” stands as a beacon of India’s commitment to space exploration, poised to mark a new era in our understanding of the lunar landscape. This audacious mission follows in the footsteps of its predecessor, Chandrayaan-2, with a resolute goal of not only demonstrating safe lunar landings and mobility but also of redefining exploration through the integration of cutting-edge technologies. As the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) prepares to launch Chandrayaan-3 via the formidable LVM3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota, the stage is set for a triumphant fusion of innovation and lunar discovery. The propulsion module, a vital element of this mission, embarks on an unprecedented journey, escorting the Lander and Rover to a lunar orbit of 100 kilometers. Additionally, this module carries the Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) payload, an embodiment of collaboration aimed at studying Earth’s spectral and polarimetric nuances from the vantage point of the moon. In an intricate dance of technology and ambition, Chandrayaan-3 embodies the quest for knowledge and the spirit of exploration.


Chandrayaan-3, the much-anticipated follow-on mission to Chandrayaan-2, stands as a testament to India’s commitment to space exploration and technological advancement. Its primary objective is to showcase the end-to-end capability of achieving safe landings and effective roving on the lunar surface. This ambitious endeavor entails a sophisticated Lander and Rover configuration, poised to redefine our understanding of lunar exploration.

Aiming to achieve this feat, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) plans to launch Chandrayaan-3 via the reliable LVM3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. Crucially, the propulsion module will shepherd the Lander and Rover to a lunar orbit of 100 kilometers, setting the stage for an intricate dance with the lunar terrain. Interestingly, the propulsion module has an added scientific payload – the Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) – enabling the study of Earth’s spectral and polarimetric nuances from an innovative lunar perspective.

The Lander itself carries an impressive suite of scientific instruments, each designed to unlock specific lunar mysteries. Among these payloads, Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) takes center stage. ChaSTE is poised to measure the thermal conductivity and temperature of the lunar surface, providing vital insights into the moon’s thermal behavior. Complementing ChaSTE is the Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA), a cutting-edge tool designed to measure seismicity around the landing site. This promises to deepen our understanding of lunar tectonics and geology. Furthermore, the Langmuir Probe (LP) serves as a key asset, enabling estimations of plasma density and its variations. In a collaborative nod to international exploration, a passive Laser Retroreflector Array from NASA has been accommodated to facilitate lunar laser ranging studies.

Meanwhile, the Rover comes equipped with its own scientific prowess. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) synergize to derive the elemental composition of the lunar vicinity. This data holds invaluable clues about the moon’s origin and evolution, offering a window into the celestial past.

Central to Chandrayaan-3’s success is its indigenous Lander module (LM), Propulsion module (PM), and accompanying Rover. The overarching objective is not just to explore the lunar landscape, but to push the boundaries of technology for interplanetary missions. The Lander’s capabilities extend to a soft landing at a predetermined lunar site, where it will then deploy the Rover. This robotic explorer will engage in on-the-spot chemical analysis of the lunar surface as it traverses its newfound terrain. Both the Lander and Rover carry scientific payloads, poised to conduct an array of experiments directly on the lunar surface.

The Propulsion Module, a pivotal element, plays a multifaceted role. It shepherds the LM from its launch vehicle injection to the final lunar orbit, a circular polar orbit at a distance of 100 kilometers. This module’s functionality extends beyond mere transportation; it encapsulates innovation. Notably, even after the Lander’s separation, the Propulsion Module will continue to contribute to the mission’s scientific objectives. A singular scientific payload, added as an enhancement, will be activated post-separation of the Lander Module, underscoring ISRO’s commitment to comprehensive lunar exploration.

LVM3 M4, the chosen launch vehicle, is expected to propel Chandrayaan-3 into an elliptic parking orbit (EPO) measuring approximately 170 x 36,500 kilometers. This calculated trajectory is a testament to ISRO’s precision in orchestrating complex interplanetary missions.

Chandrayaan-3’s mission objectives are neatly encapsulated in a trio: to demonstrate safe and soft lunar surface landings, to showcase the Rover’s mobility on the moon, and, last but certainly not least, to conduct in-situ scientific experiments. These objectives underscore ISRO’s dedication to fostering a deeper understanding of our lunar neighbor while pushing the envelope of exploration technology.

This pursuit of excellence is woven into every facet of Chandrayaan-3, with advanced technologies embedded in the Lander. Altimeters – both laser and radio frequency-based – contribute to precise altitude measurements. Velocimeters, including the Laser Doppler Velocimeter and the Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera, play a pivotal role in monitoring velocity changes during descent. The Inertial Measurement system, a fusion of laser gyro-based inertial referencing and an accelerometer package, guarantees precise orientation and navigation.

The propulsion system itself is a marvel, featuring 800N throttleable liquid engines, 58N attitude thrusters, and throttleable engine control electronics. These components work in harmonious coordination to ensure controlled propulsion and trajectory adjustments. The Navigation, Guidance & Control (NGC) systems are at the heart of Chandrayaan-3’s precision, facilitating powered descent trajectory design alongside associated software elements.

In recognition of the lunar environment’s challenges, the Lander is fortified with hazard detection and avoidance systems. The Lander Hazard Detection & Avoidance Camera, paired with a sophisticated processing algorithm, ensures that potential obstacles are identified and mitigated effectively. A sophisticated Landing Leg Mechanism underpins the soft landing, designed to absorb the shock of touchdown under varying conditions.

In preparation for the lunar odyssey, a series of Lander special tests have been meticulously planned and executed. The Integrated Cold Test exemplifies the dedication to integrated sensor testing and navigation performance, using a helicopter as a surrogate platform. Meanwhile, the Integrated Hot Test embraces closed-loop performance evaluation, incorporating sensors, actuators, and the NGC system, all orchestrated using a tower crane as the testing apparatus. Further underlining ISRO’s commitment to precision, the Lander Leg Mechanism Performance Test simulated different touch-down scenarios on a lunar simulant test bed.

In conclusion, Chandrayaan-3 emerges as a symphony of scientific ambition and technological prowess. Its multi-faceted objectives, advanced payloads, and intricate testing procedures underscore ISRO’s dedication to advancing human understanding and technology in the realm of lunar exploration. As Chandrayaan-3 embarks on its voyage, it carries not only scientific instruments but the aspirations of a nation, the excitement of international collaboration, and the promise of breakthrough discoveries on the lunar surface.

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1) Where Chandrayaan-3 will land?
The Chandrayaan-3 mission, while still on the near side, has managed to land Vikram the closest ever to the lunar South Pole. The coordinates of Chandrayaan-3 at 69.36 S and 32.34 E make it about 600 km away from the South Pole.

2) Which time Chandrayaan-3 launched?
Chandrayaan-3 Launch Date and Time
India’s lunar mission Chandrayaan 3 was launched on July 14, at 2:35 P.M. from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota announced by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The date was later confirmed by Secretary of Space department and ISRO Chairman S

3) Which time Chandrayaan-3 launched?
India’s lunar mission Chandrayaan 3 was launched on July 14, at 2:35 P.M. from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota announced by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The date was later confirmed by Secretary of Space department and ISRO Chairman S

Thanks for reading the article i hope you will like the article Chandrayaan-3: Discovery with Innovative Techniques.

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